Case studies on motivation theories

Managerial Power: A Case Study

Some prior exposure to basic issues of organizational behavior communication, decision making, motivation, etc. Great course from end to end! Really interesting topics covered. Unlike other management courses on this platform it didn't just touch the surface on topics but also provided concrete examples. Loved the way the course is structured and delivered by faculty of Bocconi. Thank you for making this an enjoyable course with a lot of insights and examples to understand the material.

International leaders need to spur and channel the energy, talents, and commitment of their followers. To foster motivation leaders need to recognize people's diverse needs and motives, cultural foundations of motivation, and social mechanisms that determine motivation in teams. International Leadership and Organizational Behavior.

Enroll for Free. From the lesson. Introduction to Motivating Followers Content Theories Process Theories - Part 2: Expectancy Theory Introduction to Team Motivation Here are 5 popular theories of motivation that can help you increase workplace productivity…. The Two-Factor Theory of motivation otherwise known as dual-factor theory or motivation-hygiene theory was developed by psychologist Frederick Herzberg in the s.

Analysing the responses of accountants and engineers who were asked about their positive and negative feelings about their work, Herzberg found 2 factors that influence employee motivation and satisfaction…. Motivator factors — Simply put, these are factors that lead to satisfaction and motivate employees to work harder. Examples might include enjoying your work, feeling recognised and career progression. Hygiene factors — These factors can lead to dissatisfaction and a lack of motivation if they are absent.

Examples include salary, company policies, benefits, relationships with managers and co-workers. This theory implies that for the happiest and most productive workforce, you need to work on improving both motivator and hygiene factors. To help motivate your employees, make sure they feel appreciated and supported. Give plenty of feedback and make sure your employees understand how they can grow and progress through the company. To prevent job dissatisfaction, make sure that your employees feel that they are treated right by offering them the best possible working conditions and fair pay.

Make sure you pay attention to your team and form supportive relationships with them.

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Paul Hebert of Symbolist believes that benefits packages should not be one-size-fits all…. Then you must focus on the individual and what they want out of their association with your enterprise. Physiological — these needs must be met in order for a person to survive, such as food, water and shelter. Safety — including personal and financial security and health and wellbeing.

Esteem — the need to feel confident and be respected by others. Self-actualisation — the desire to achieve everything you possibly can and become the most that you can be. According to the hierarchy of needs, you must be in good health, safe and secure with meaningful relationships and confidence before you are able to be the most that you can be.

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Chip Conley , founder of the Joie de Vivre hotel chain and Head of Hospitality at Airbnb, used the Hierarchy of Needs pyramid to transform his business. According to Chip, many managers struggle with the abstract concept of self actualization and so focus on lower levels of the pyramid instead. Conley found one way of helping with higher levels was to help his employees understand the meaning of their roles during a staff retreat….

They were creating a space for a traveler who was far away from home to feel safe and protected. By showing them the value of their roles, the team were able to feel respected and motivated to work harder. In order to get the most out of your team, you should also make sure you support them in other aspects of their lives outside work.

Perhaps you could offer flexible working hours to give employees time to focus on their families and make sure they are paid fairly to help them feel financially stable.


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The Hawthorne Effect was first described by Henry A. Landsberger in who noticed a tendency for some people to work harder and perform better when they were being observed by researchers. The researchers changed a number of physical conditions over the course of the experiments including lighting, working hours and breaks.

In all cases, employee productivity increased when a change was made. The researchers concluded that employees became motivated to work harder as a response to the attention being paid to them, rather than the actual physical changes themselves. Showing your employees that you care about them and their working conditions may also motivate them to work harder.

Encourage your team to give you feedback and suggestions about their workspace and development. Expectancy Theory proposes that people will choose how to behave depending on the outcomes they expect as a result of their behaviour. In other words, we decide what to do based on what we expect the outcome to be.

Essay on Case Study on Maslow, Herzberg, and Mcgregor’s Theories

At work, it might be that we work longer hours because we expect a pay rise. However, Expectancy Theory also suggests that the process by which we decide our behaviours is also influenced by how likely we perceive those rewards to be. In this instance, workers may be more likely to work harder if they had been promised a pay rise and thus perceived that outcome as very likely than if they had only assumed they might get one and perceived the outcome as possible but not likely. Expectancy — the belief that your effort will result in your desired goal.

This is based on your past experience, your self confidence and how difficult you think the goal is to achieve. Instrumentality — the belief that you will receive a reward if you meet performance expectations. Business Horizons , 48 , —; Turban, D. Organizational attractiveness: An interactionist perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology , 78 , — Are individuals who are high in need for achievement effective managers? Because of their success in lower level jobs where their individual contributions matter the most, those with high need for achievement are often promoted to higher level positions.

McClelland, D. Leadership motive pattern and long-term success in management. Journal of Applied Psychology , 67 , — However, a high need for achievement has significant disadvantages in management positions. Management involves getting work done by motivating others. When a salesperson is promoted to be a sales manager, the job description changes from actively selling to recruiting, motivating, and training salespeople.

Those who are high in need for achievement may view managerial activities such as coaching, communicating, and meeting with subordinates as a waste of time and may neglect these aspects of their jobs.

17 | Motivation And Rehabilitation

Moreover, those high in need for achievement enjoy doing things themselves and may find it difficult to delegate any meaningful authority to their subordinates. These individuals often micromanage, expecting others to approach tasks a particular way, and may become overbearing bosses by expecting everyone to display high levels of dedication. Power is the great motivator. Harvard Business Review , 25 , — If the story you created in relation to the picture you are analyzing contains elements of making plans to be with friends or family, you may have a high need for affiliation.

Individuals who have a high need for affiliation Wanting to be liked and accepted by others. When given a choice, they prefer to interact with others and be with friends.

Wong, M. Affiliation motivation and daily experience: Some issues on gender differences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 60 , — Their emphasis on harmonious interpersonal relationships may be an advantage in jobs and occupations requiring frequent interpersonal interaction, such as a social worker or teacher. In managerial positions, a high need for affiliation may again serve as a disadvantage because these individuals tend to be overly concerned about how they are perceived by others.

Thus, the work environment may be characterized by mediocrity and may even lead to high performers leaving the team. Finally, if your story contains elements of getting work done by influencing other people or desiring to make an impact on the organization, you may have a high need for power.

Those with a high need for power Wanting to influence others and control their environment. In fact, the need for power is viewed as an important trait for effectiveness in managerial and leadership positions. Harvard Business Review , 25 , —; Spangler, W.

Essay on Case Study on Maslow, Herzberg, and Mcgregor’s | Bartleby

Presidential effectiveness and the leadership motive profile. Leadership run amok. Harvard Business Review , 84 , 72— Managers need to understand the dominant needs of their employees to be able to motivate them. While people who have a high need for achievement may respond to goals, those with a high need for power may attempt to gain influence over those they work with, and individuals high in their need for affiliation may be motivated to gain the approval of their peers and supervisors.

Finally, those who have a high drive for success may experience difficulties in managerial positions, and making them aware of common pitfalls may increase their effectiveness.


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  • Managerial Power: A Case Study!

These needs are hierarchically ranked, and as a lower level need is satisfied, it no longer serves as a motivator. The theory recognizes that when employees are frustrated while attempting to satisfy higher level needs, they may regress. The two-factor theory differentiates between factors that make people dissatisfied on the job hygiene factors and factors that truly motivate employees motivators. Finally, acquired-needs theory argues that individuals possess stable and dominant motives to achieve, acquire power, or affiliate with others.

The type of need that is dominant will drive behavior. Each of these theories explains characteristics of a work environment that motivates employees. These theories paved the way to process-based theories that explain the mental calculations employees make to decide how to behave.

A separate stream of research views motivation as something more than action aimed at satisfying a need. Instead, process-based theories view motivation as a rational process.

Individuals analyze their environment, develop thoughts and feelings, and react in certain ways. Process theories attempt to explain the thought processes of individuals who demonstrate motivated behavior. Under this category, we will review equity theory, expectancy theory, and reinforcement theory. You have held this job for 6 months. You are very good at what you do, you come up with creative ways to make things easier around you, and you are a good colleague who is willing to help others.